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71 Year Old Male: Chest Discomfort- Discussion

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Here is the discussion for “71 year old male: chest discomfort” let’s review the prehospital 12 lead:     Here are the precordial leads blown up:   There is slight ST elevation in V1,  ST elevation in V2 (saddleback morphology), as well as slight ST elevation in V3 and V4. The STE in V3 and V4 […]

71 year old male: Chest Discomfort

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  This very interesting case comes from Bryan F, a Paramedic from Long Island. A 71 year old male is cooking breakfast when he experiences sudden onset of 10/10 chest discomfort. He waits 20 minutes or so for it to subside, but it does not and he calls 911. EMS arrives to find him lying […]

What are the Essential Elements of High Performance CPR?

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Adult High Performance CPR (HP-CPR) Demo at the South Carolina Resuscitation Academy! Hilton Head Island Fire Rescue: Tim Santini, Jon Ceiply, Shane Marstiller, Sean Kavlick What is High Performance CPR? High Performance CPR typically consists of expertly performed BLS with strict attention to: Minimally interrupted chest compressions Ensuring optimal rate (100-120) Ensuring adequate depth (2 […]

Nitro paste is NOT an emergency medicine drug – The Evidence

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Many paramedics argue strongly for including nitroglycerin paste as an arrow in their pharmacologic quiver when treating acute congestive heart failure. Baffles me. True, you don’t need to break the seal of the CPAP to give it, and you don’t need to use an IV. But this medication hardly belongs in the emergency department, let […]

Calcium and Hyperkalemia

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Calcium Chloride/Gluconate are used during Hyperkalemia induced ECG changes to reduce Serum Potassium. The answer is: False! The majority of Potassium in our body is found intracellular. Only a very small percentage (about 2%) is found extracellular, ranging between 3.5- 5.5 mEq/L. As extracellular Potassium levels increase, the action potential threshold decreases, for example, instead of […]

57 Year Old Male–Chest Discomfort

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  It is a bright Sunday morning when you and your partner are dispatched for an “adult male-chest pain”. You arrive at a well kept residence, noting a ladder and paint cans as you enter. You find your patient, a 57 year old male, sitting on the sofa in mild distress. “I was doing some […]

53 YOF with AMS: STEMI or Secondary ST-T Changes?

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This is the case of a 53 year old female who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) via EMS, with Altered Mental Status (AMS). EMS was called to a local dialysis center due to the patient being unresponsive after  approximately 3 hours of dialysis. Upon arrival to the ED, the patient was unable to answer […]

Pulsus Paradoxus: Cardiovascular Function and Assessment

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Cardiovascular Assessment: Pulsus Paradoxus Assessing cardiac function, blood pressure and hemodynamic status play an important role during our overall patient assessment and treatment. Although 12 lead ECG evaluation is an essential part of patient assessment, especially cardiac etiology, understanding basic cardiac function plays a major role during treatment and overall patient status. During normal hemodynamic […]

Understanding Atropine

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As requested, during our previous Adenosine discussion, we will briefly review, Parasympathetic stimulation and Atropine pharmacodynamics on the heart. ACETYLCHOLINE (ACh) is one of the Neurotransmitters, a chemical signal, used by the Central Nervous System, which has many effects on the body, from stimulating muscle contraction, inducing peristalsis (digestion), Bile release by the liver, and […]

Understanding Adenosine (Adenocard)

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So, recently, I was involved in a conversation, where the topic of Adenosine administration came up. It seems like there is a misunderstanding regarding its use and mechanism of action. Although this is not our classic ECG interpretation topic, I believe its worth talking about for a bit. Adenosine, a Class V antiarrhythmic from the […]

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