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Nitro paste is NOT an emergency medicine drug – The Evidence

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Many paramedics argue strongly for including nitroglycerin paste as an arrow in their pharmacologic quiver when treating acute congestive heart failure. Baffles me. True, you don’t need to break the seal of the CPAP to give it, and you don’t need to use an IV. But this medication hardly belongs in the emergency department, let […]

Calcium and Hyperkalemia

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“Calcium Chloride/Gluconate are used during Hyperkalemia induced ECG changes to reduce Serum Potassium.” The answer is:    False! The majority of Potassium in our body is found intracellular. Only a very small percentage (about 2%) is found extracellular, ranging between 3.5- 5.5 mEq/L. As extracellular Potassium levels increase, the action potential threshold decreases, for example, instead of […]

Understanding Atropine

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As requested, during our previous Adenosine discussion, we will briefly review, Parasympathetic stimulation and Atropine pharmacodynamics on the heart. ACETYLCHOLINE (ACh) is one of the Neurotransmitters, a chemical signal, used by the Central Nervous System, which has many effects on the body, from stimulating muscle contraction, inducing peristalsis (digestion), Bile release by the liver, and […]