Tag Archives: axis determination

The 360 Degree Heart – Part I

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The hexaxial reference system. If I asked you to imagine how the limb leads “look” at the heart, you would probably picture something like the image below: Notice those gaps in the limb leads? They don’t really exist. They’re an illusion. This isn’t something that is commonly emphasized when the cardiac axis is being taught, […]

QRS AXIS DETERMINATION

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During ECG interpretation, cardiac Axis, or direction of electrical impulses, may be normal (physiologic) or abnormal (pathologic), suggesting abnormal cardiac conductivity. Although every deflection obtained on the ECG will have an axis, we will focus on the ventricular axis. When we think of our cardiac monitoring lead placement, we have to understand cardiac Vectors, which is the […]

90 year old female CC: Seizure – Conclusion

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This is the conclusion to 90 year old female CC: Seizure. Be sure to start there first! When we left off, we had completed our initial assessment of a 90 year old patient who, based on bystander accounts, had a seizure. She is pale, cold to the touch, and feels lethargic. During our assessment she […]

64 year old male CC: Indigestion – Discussion

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This is the discussion to 64 year old male CC: Indigestion. If you recall, we had a stubborn gentleman complaining of indigestion with a significant cardiac history. Considering the symptoms kept our patient awake, are highly suggestive of a coronary event, and we have uncompensated hypotension, we should have a keen interest on any ECG […]

Video: Axis Determination

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So you’ve read our blog, followed us on Facebook, submitted your own case studies, but you’re looking for more. You’re looking for the next big thing in EMS 12-Lead education. As a test run I’ve put together a video,shotKahn Academystyle using a pen and tablet, covering rapid axis determination. When I learned 12-Lead interpretation in […]

Why learn axis?

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A few weeks ago on JEMS Connect there was a thread called Vectors, Axis and Cardiology. In it, Dave M. asked: I truly enjoy learning and studying the heart, how it works and why it works that way. I had the privilege of teaching a paramedic class today and going over the vectors and axis […]

Axis Determination – Part VI

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By now you can predict the QRS axis in the frontal plane within 15 degrees as long as you have an equiphasic (or isoelectric) lead in the frontal plane. So what constitutes a normal QRS axis? What is a left axis deviation? A right axis deviation? If you don’t have a copy of the hexaxial […]

Axis Determination – Part V

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In Part IV, I promised that I’d show you a fascinating relationship between the standard 12 lead ECG and the hexaxial reference system. You will recall that to use the hexaxial reference system, you find the most equiphasic (or isoelectric) lead in the frontal plane (first 6 leads of the 12 lead ECG) and look […]

Axis Determination – Part IV

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By now you should have a fairly good grasp of how the hexaxial reference system is derived from the first 6 leads of the 12 lead ECG. Before we break down the finished diagram, let’s look at the hexaxial reference system laying on top of the patient’s anterior chest, with the arrows and leads in […]

Axis Determination – Part III

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In Part II, we discussed the heart’s mean electrical vector and how Einthoven’s Triangle (leads I, II, and III) can be redrawn to form the first 3 spokes of the hexaxial reference system. Essentially, we ended up with a shape like the one on the right. When leads I, II, and III are drawn this […]

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EMS 12-Lead

Cardiac Rhythm Analysis, 12-Lead ECG Interpretation, Resuscitation
Comments
Richard Kenkel
64 y.o. Female with CP – “And then I gave her a NTG…”
Cardiac arrest? Its a RELATIVE contraindication. You need to use clinical gestalt. Her blood pressure is quite high, and her heart rate is average, she would probably tolerate nitro quite well. Provided she's not on beta blockers or calcium channel blocker, orthostatic hypotension etc, from what I can tell she'd compensate just fine. While there…
2014-09-16 02:05:12
Stephen Smith, of Dr. Smith's ECG Blog
59 year old male: chest pressure
Inferolateral MI, not RV (T-wave down in V1)
2014-09-14 18:16:53
Alex
The 360 Degree Heart – Part I
Some models of ECG machines have an option to flip aVR upside down. In this case it looks at +30* and fills in the gap between I and II.
2014-09-14 16:00:21
Lucas
59 year old male: chest pressure
Besides MI and Aortic Dissection, this presentation of acute chest pain and hemodynamic compromise, associated with important dyspnea would concern me for PE, which I think should be properly investigated.
2014-09-14 14:35:36
Joseph Goodson
The 360 Degree Heart – Part I
As a new Paramedic, this information is very useful and helpful. I believe there is more to understanding paramedicine than what can be taught in a class and it takes the initiative of the medic to pursue. Thank you for providing this simple yet understandable concept. Honestly, it never dawned on me how the hexaxial…
2014-09-13 15:27:21
It's OK.
It's OK.
Welcome to the Club
Welcome to the Club
Author Unknown
The Part We Forget
The Part We Forget
The Real Problem With Ray Rice
The Real Problem With Ray Rice

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