Tag Archives: hexaxial reference system

QRS AXIS DETERMINATION

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During ECG interpretation, cardiac Axis, or direction of electrical impulses, may be normal (physiologic) or abnormal (pathologic), suggesting abnormal cardiac conductivity. Although every deflection obtained on the ECG will have an axis, we will focus on the ventricular axis. When we think of our cardiac monitoring lead placement, we have to understand cardiac Vectors, which is the […]

Axis Determination – Part VI

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By now you can predict the QRS axis in the frontal plane within 15 degrees as long as you have an equiphasic (or isoelectric) lead in the frontal plane. So what constitutes a normal QRS axis? What is a left axis deviation? A right axis deviation? If you don’t have a copy of the hexaxial […]

Axis Determination – Part V

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In Part IV, I promised that I’d show you a fascinating relationship between the standard 12 lead ECG and the hexaxial reference system. You will recall that to use the hexaxial reference system, you find the most equiphasic (or isoelectric) lead in the frontal plane (first 6 leads of the 12 lead ECG) and look […]

Axis Determination – Part IV

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By now you should have a fairly good grasp of how the hexaxial reference system is derived from the first 6 leads of the 12 lead ECG. Before we break down the finished diagram, let’s look at the hexaxial reference system laying on top of the patient’s anterior chest, with the arrows and leads in […]

Axis Determination – Part III

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In Part II, we discussed the heart’s mean electrical vector and how Einthoven’s Triangle (leads I, II, and III) can be redrawn to form the first 3 spokes of the hexaxial reference system. Essentially, we ended up with a shape like the one on the right. When leads I, II, and III are drawn this […]

Axis Determination – Part II

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In Part I, we looked at Einthoven’s Equilateral Triangle and Einthoven’s Law, and I told you that it was the key to understanding the formation of the hexaxial reference system. But before we delve further into the hexaxial reference system (the instrument we’ll be using to calculate the heart’s QRS axis) we need to address […]

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Comments
Arlene R
The Trouble with Sinus Tachycardia
It has been very insightful for me as i read this post. Thanks to the may people who commented. Like many nurses, I was also taught to differentiate svt from st by rate and now I stand corrected. I have a Telemetry test coming up soon, I wont have the patient in front of me…
2014-11-20 19:59:33
Nick
100 yof CC: Rib pain and intermittent spasms
Can't be a potassium imbalance. The TW's wouldn't change and then change back. If it was coronary spasm, I would expect some ST segment elevation. The TW'S are also not hyperacute (peaked). Does she wear some sort of electronic stimulator?
2014-11-19 01:05:43
Anterior T wave inversions and PE. | EMS 12 Lead
Not just S1Q3T3: Look at the other 10 leads!
[…] Last week, I described the case of a middle-aged male with a vague history of heart failure who had been having progressive shortness of breath for 4-5 days. On the day he called 911, he had been walking a short distance when he syncoped. EMS obtained an ECG: […]
2014-11-18 18:33:47
Christine
100 yof CC: Rib pain and intermittent spasms
I believe this may be coronary artery vasospasm.
2014-11-18 11:02:45
Ian Fudge
What it Looks Like: Cardiac Arrest
this is really interesting because something similar happened to a patient as I sat them up in bed after delivering them to a community hospital in fact I even turned to his son and said "does dad suffer with epilepsy?" And then turned back and realised he wasn't breathing
2014-11-18 07:59:13

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