Tag Archives: hexaxial reference system

QRS AXIS DETERMINATION

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During ECG interpretation, cardiac Axis, or direction of electrical impulses, may be normal (physiologic) or abnormal (pathologic), suggesting abnormal cardiac conductivity. Although every deflection obtained on the ECG will have an axis, we will focus on the ventricular axis. When we think of our cardiac monitoring lead placement, we have to understand cardiac Vectors, which is the […]

Axis Determination – Part VI

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By now you can predict the QRS axis in the frontal plane within 15 degrees as long as you have an equiphasic (or isoelectric) lead in the frontal plane. So what constitutes a normal QRS axis? What is a left axis deviation? A right axis deviation? If you don’t have a copy of the hexaxial […]

Axis Determination – Part V

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In Part IV, I promised that I’d show you a fascinating relationship between the standard 12 lead ECG and the hexaxial reference system. You will recall that to use the hexaxial reference system, you find the most equiphasic (or isoelectric) lead in the frontal plane (first 6 leads of the 12 lead ECG) and look […]

Axis Determination – Part IV

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By now you should have a fairly good grasp of how the hexaxial reference system is derived from the first 6 leads of the 12 lead ECG. Before we break down the finished diagram, let’s look at the hexaxial reference system laying on top of the patient’s anterior chest, with the arrows and leads in […]

Axis Determination – Part III

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In Part II, we discussed the heart’s mean electrical vector and how Einthoven’s Triangle (leads I, II, and III) can be redrawn to form the first 3 spokes of the hexaxial reference system. Essentially, we ended up with a shape like the one on the right. When leads I, II, and III are drawn this […]

Axis Determination – Part II

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In Part I, we looked at Einthoven’s Equilateral Triangle and Einthoven’s Law, and I told you that it was the key to understanding the formation of the hexaxial reference system. But before we delve further into the hexaxial reference system (the instrument we’ll be using to calculate the heart’s QRS axis) we need to address […]

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Proficiency vs Deficiency… The Art Of Electrocardiography | EMS 12 Lead
Understanding Amiodarone
[…] on the highlighted title for an Amiodarone breakdown, UNDERSTANDING AMIODARONE   One tool I use in these cases of bradycardia, is SPo2 monitoring. Remember, with every systole […]
2015-05-22 16:59:43
Wayne
12 Lead ECG – Lead Placement Diagrams
I have been doing EKG's for the past thirty years. It use to be that you always lay the patient in the supine position but here lately I have been told that with the patient sitting up right will not change the EKG, is this so ?
2015-05-21 17:37:37
Ivan Rios
Understanding Atropine
Hi Tony, thank you for writing. It's always a bit of a gamble to give opinion in such topics without being there, however, addressing ventilation is a must. The rate could be secondary to vagal stimulation and/or respiratory depression, but it sounds like the patient is compensating pretty well when it comes to the hemodynamic…
2015-05-21 12:55:43
Tony Correia
Understanding Atropine
Looking for an opinion. Had a pt. who was unconscious from unknown etiology, Agonal respiration = 6, SPO2 = 59, heart rate =37 sinus bradycardia, B/P = 137/80 . We ventilate the pt. approx for 2 minutes without change in status. Would you have administered atropine or continue with BVM to attempt to correct hypoxia,…
2015-05-21 12:16:26
dan
57 year old male: Chest Discomfort
I'm sorry but I don't see any flutter here. With a rate of 150 we are at the very upper limit of sinus tach. No O2 is indicated with a pulse ox of 94%, especially if you are thinking cardiac. Place in position of comfort, large bore IV, fluid bolus, ASA, nitro, capnography, complete assessment…
2015-05-14 03:50:36

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