Tag Archives: hexaxial reference system

QRS AXIS DETERMINATION

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During ECG interpretation, cardiac Axis, or direction of electrical impulses, may be normal (physiologic) or abnormal (pathologic), suggesting abnormal cardiac conductivity. Although every deflection obtained on the ECG will have an axis, we will focus on the ventricular axis. When we think of our cardiac monitoring lead placement, we have to understand cardiac Vectors, which is the […]

Axis Determination – Part VI

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By now you can predict the QRS axis in the frontal plane within 15 degrees as long as you have an equiphasic (or isoelectric) lead in the frontal plane. So what constitutes a normal QRS axis? What is a left axis deviation? A right axis deviation? If you don’t have a copy of the hexaxial […]

Axis Determination – Part V

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In Part IV, I promised that I’d show you a fascinating relationship between the standard 12 lead ECG and the hexaxial reference system. You will recall that to use the hexaxial reference system, you find the most equiphasic (or isoelectric) lead in the frontal plane (first 6 leads of the 12 lead ECG) and look […]

Axis Determination – Part IV

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By now you should have a fairly good grasp of how the hexaxial reference system is derived from the first 6 leads of the 12 lead ECG. Before we break down the finished diagram, let’s look at the hexaxial reference system laying on top of the patient’s anterior chest, with the arrows and leads in […]

Axis Determination – Part III

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In Part II, we discussed the heart’s mean electrical vector and how Einthoven’s Triangle (leads I, II, and III) can be redrawn to form the first 3 spokes of the hexaxial reference system. Essentially, we ended up with a shape like the one on the right. When leads I, II, and III are drawn this […]

Axis Determination – Part II

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In Part I, we looked at Einthoven’s Equilateral Triangle and Einthoven’s Law, and I told you that it was the key to understanding the formation of the hexaxial reference system. But before we delve further into the hexaxial reference system (the instrument we’ll be using to calculate the heart’s QRS axis) we need to address […]

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Comments
darren
53 year old male with a suspicious ECG
1st degree AV block. Left Anterior Hemiblock (rS waves in II, III and aVF, Left Axis Deviation -45 degrees QRS < 0.12). ST-changes I and aVL (concave rather than convex but suggestive of possible high lateral injury). Requires cardiologist referral.
2015-03-05 12:52:44
William Dillon
60 year old male CC: Sudden cardiac arrest
Great case but it stopped short. It should continue. The patient was transferred to an experienced PCI center. Focused medical evaluation was performed in the ED and emergent cardiology consultation was obtained. Although there is not clear ST elevation on the 12 lead the interventional cardiologist knows the data that over 70% of VF cardiac…
2015-03-03 12:53:20
Sharon Sinclair
The 12 Leads of Christmas: V3
As a technician, I absolutely love how comprehensive these posts are. Although I do not have the advanced knowledge or understanding of a licensed provider, I try to absorb as much as I can from posts like these. Maybe one day I will muster the courage to transition to a more advanced position in cardiac…
2015-02-28 20:40:17
A visit to Johns Hopkins #EMSToday2015 | EMS 12 Lead
Episode #11 – Are we harming patients with oxygen?
[…] might remember Mike from one of our most popular EMS 12-Lead podcasts Episode #11: Are we harming patients with oxygen? We finished up the night with food and adult beverages in the […]
2015-02-25 14:33:03
Rollo
The Trouble with Sinus Tachycardia
Had a pt today with a rate @ and around 160, it was indeed sinus tachycardia. The tachycardia was secondary to a stimulant which caused over stimulation of sympathetic nervous system ie sympathomimetic O.D. The treatment was fluid and a benzo. Problem solved.
2015-02-25 00:14:18

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