Tag Archives: hexaxial reference system

QRS AXIS DETERMINATION

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During ECG interpretation, cardiac Axis, or direction of electrical impulses, may be normal (physiologic) or abnormal (pathologic), suggesting abnormal cardiac conductivity. Although every deflection obtained on the ECG will have an axis, we will focus on the ventricular axis. When we think of our cardiac monitoring lead placement, we have to understand cardiac Vectors, which is the […]

Axis Determination – Part VI

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By now you can predict the QRS axis in the frontal plane within 15 degrees as long as you have an equiphasic (or isoelectric) lead in the frontal plane. So what constitutes a normal QRS axis? What is a left axis deviation? A right axis deviation? If you don’t have a copy of the hexaxial […]

Axis Determination – Part V

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In Part IV, I promised that I’d show you a fascinating relationship between the standard 12 lead ECG and the hexaxial reference system. You will recall that to use the hexaxial reference system, you find the most equiphasic (or isoelectric) lead in the frontal plane (first 6 leads of the 12 lead ECG) and look […]

Axis Determination – Part IV

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By now you should have a fairly good grasp of how the hexaxial reference system is derived from the first 6 leads of the 12 lead ECG. Before we break down the finished diagram, let’s look at the hexaxial reference system laying on top of the patient’s anterior chest, with the arrows and leads in […]

Axis Determination – Part III

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In Part II, we discussed the heart’s mean electrical vector and how Einthoven’s Triangle (leads I, II, and III) can be redrawn to form the first 3 spokes of the hexaxial reference system. Essentially, we ended up with a shape like the one on the right. When leads I, II, and III are drawn this […]

Axis Determination – Part II

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In Part I, we looked at Einthoven’s Equilateral Triangle and Einthoven’s Law, and I told you that it was the key to understanding the formation of the hexaxial reference system. But before we delve further into the hexaxial reference system (the instrument we’ll be using to calculate the heart’s QRS axis) we need to address […]

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Comments
Jake
47 year old male CC: Crushing chest pain
I know this is old, but it just popped up on facebook so I'll go ahead and put in my $0.02 worth. With that hx and that 12-lead, there's no question this is an acute STEMI. I'm comfortable calling that third strip Torsades (assuming I've verified it's not an equipment issue). The defib pads are…
2015-03-24 14:14:19
Ngan Thanh
17 year old male CC: Syncope
I thinks about WPWs on ECG!
2015-03-21 23:27:41
bob
Adenosine for sinus tachycardia: Try to avoid this!
I have a better answer for Shay's patient (and Mel) and it's called lone a-flutter because I just had it diagnosed in me. I'm looking at my ekg showing a rate of 230 which fooled the doc who thought it was svt's until I told him I had no history of anything and talked him…
2015-03-21 21:57:17
darren
17 year old male CC: Syncope
Voltage criteria for LVH. ? Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?
2015-03-21 21:12:57
Kyle H
Transcutaneous Pacing Success!!! Part 2
Great article. I love the use of US. This is another (in a growing list) of reasons why we should have prehospital US.
2015-03-21 16:10:38

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