Tag Archives: hexaxial reference system

QRS AXIS DETERMINATION

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During ECG interpretation, cardiac Axis, or direction of electrical impulses, may be normal (physiologic) or abnormal (pathologic), suggesting abnormal cardiac conductivity. Although every deflection obtained on the ECG will have an axis, we will focus on the ventricular axis. When we think of our cardiac monitoring lead placement, we have to understand cardiac Vectors, which is the […]

Axis Determination – Part VI

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By now you can predict the QRS axis in the frontal plane within 15 degrees as long as you have an equiphasic (or isoelectric) lead in the frontal plane. So what constitutes a normal QRS axis? What is a left axis deviation? A right axis deviation? If you don’t have a copy of the hexaxial […]

Axis Determination – Part V

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In Part IV, I promised that I’d show you a fascinating relationship between the standard 12 lead ECG and the hexaxial reference system. You will recall that to use the hexaxial reference system, you find the most equiphasic (or isoelectric) lead in the frontal plane (first 6 leads of the 12 lead ECG) and look […]

Axis Determination – Part IV

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By now you should have a fairly good grasp of how the hexaxial reference system is derived from the first 6 leads of the 12 lead ECG. Before we break down the finished diagram, let’s look at the hexaxial reference system laying on top of the patient’s anterior chest, with the arrows and leads in […]

Axis Determination – Part III

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In Part II, we discussed the heart’s mean electrical vector and how Einthoven’s Triangle (leads I, II, and III) can be redrawn to form the first 3 spokes of the hexaxial reference system. Essentially, we ended up with a shape like the one on the right. When leads I, II, and III are drawn this […]

Axis Determination – Part II

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In Part I, we looked at Einthoven’s Equilateral Triangle and Einthoven’s Law, and I told you that it was the key to understanding the formation of the hexaxial reference system. But before we delve further into the hexaxial reference system (the instrument we’ll be using to calculate the heart’s QRS axis) we need to address […]

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Comments
Kori
59 Year Old Male: Unwell
There's the point! There is are no P waves, and the rhythm is irregulary-irregular-atrial fibrillation. If you look, it is rsR phenomen-RBBB, BUT there are huge ST elevations on all leads from V1-V5 (that's why the QRS complexes look so broad). I and aVL is clearly ST elevation suggesting STEMI. In limb leads you can…
2015-07-06 10:12:16
Vince DiGiulio
Conclusion to 59 Year Old Male: Unwell
I'll expand on this in the next post but unfortunately I actually wasn't present for this case so I can't give my direct account of how things happened. That said, from the notes I read and word-of-mouth from those involved (which I suspect painted things in a better light than I would have viewed them),…
2015-07-06 04:09:22
Matt King
Conclusion to 59 Year Old Male: Unwell
Hey Vince thanks for the through follow up with this case. I am curious how his rate was controlled since he was hypotensive and maybe an unknown onset of when his A-Fib stated(thinking anticoagulation first)? As you know the wrong approach could be devastating in this PT with risks of further infarction, stroke, or death…
2015-07-05 14:10:57
Masters Case #01: 50 Year Old Male – Severe Chest Pain | EMS 12 Lead
Conclusion to Masters Case #01
[…] ***Update: The conclusion for this case is now posted here.*** […]
2015-07-05 03:46:04
Seth
Conclusion to 59 Year Old Male: Unwell
This was an AWESOME 12 lead. It was a large discussion point for many of my colleagues and I. I look forward to seeing the final conclusion of treatment later on next week. Thanks again for sharing.
2015-07-04 15:19:00

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